This may highlight an opportunity for guideline developers to enhance the person-centeredness of their guidelines by including implementation tools for consumers, and for providers to share with consumers. A variety of options are available (11,12):
Type of engagement
Type of support
Information that provides patients with knowledge about their condition and an understanding of how to manage it
|Condition||Information and evidence about the condition, prognosis, what to expect, and its management|
|Activities of daily living||Information and advice on how to undertake generic activities such as hygiene, dressing, preparing meals, transportation|
|Lifestyle advice||Information and guidance on lifestyle behaviors that support disease management|
Information or tools to prompt action for actively managing the condition and enhancing quality of life
|Support for condition||Reminders, diaries or other prompts to support adherence to medication or recommended lifestyle behaviors|
|Action plans for condition||Guidance specific to medical condition, providing signs of worsening condition, how to self-adjust treatment, and response if deterioration continues|
|Monitoring||Self-evaluation tools to log and monitor physiological measures for personal assessment, and to share with clinicians|
|Psychological strategies||Mechanisms for problem-solving, goal-setting, reframing, relaxation|
Information or mechanisms that lead to interaction and engagement
|Communication with clinicians||Guidance and prompts to facilitate communication with health care professionals|
|Available resources||Links to or contact details for organizations that offer information, psycho-social support, or financial aid|
Links to or contact details for organizations that offer support, mentoring, or socializing
- Coulter A, Ellins J. Effectiveness of strategies for informing, educating and involving patients. BMJ 2007;335:24-7.
- Doyle C, Lennox L, Bell D. A systematic review of evidence on the links between patient experience and clinical safety and effectiveness. BMJ Open 2012;3:e001570.
- Nelson KM et al. Implementation of the patient-centred medical home in the Veterans Health Administration. JAMA Intern Med 2014;174:1350-8.
- Rathert C, Wyrwich MD, Boren SA. Patient-centered care and outcomes: a systematic review of the literature. Med Care Res Rev 2013:70:351-79.
- Aboumatar HJ, Chang BH, Al Danaf J et al. Promising practices for achieving patient-centered hospital care. Med Care 2015;53:758-67.
- Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Standards for Developing Trustworthy Clinical Practice Guidelines; Graham R, Mancher M, Miller Wolman D, et al., editors. Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011. Summary. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK209538/
- Van der Weijden T, Pieterse AH, Koelewijn-van Loon M, Knaapen L, Legare F, Boivin A, Burgers JS, Stiggelbout AM, Faber M, Elwyn G. How can clinical practice guidelines be adapted to facilitate shared decision making? A qualitative key-informant study. BMJ Qual Saf. 2013;22 855-63.
- Gagliardi AR, Brouwers MC, Palda VA, Lemieux-Charles L, Grimshaw JM. How can we improve guideline use? A conceptual framework of implementability. Implement Sci. 2011;6:26.
- Gagliardi AR, Brouwers MC. Do guidelines offer implementation advice to target users? A systematic review of guideline applicability. BMJ Open 2015;5:e007047.
- Loudon K, Santesso N, Callaghan M, Thornton J, Harbour J, Graham K, Harbour R, Kunnamo I, Liira H, McFarlane E, Ritchie K, Treweek S. Patient and public attitudes to and awareness of clinical practice guidelines: a systematic review with thematic and narrative syntheses. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014;14:321.
- Grande SW, Faber MJ, Durand MA, Thompson R, Elwyn G. A classification model of patient engagement methods and assessment of their feasibility in real-world setting Pat Educ Counsel. 2014;95:281-7.
- Taylor SJC, Pinnock H, Epiphaniou E, Pearce G, Parke HL, Schwappach A, Purushotham N, Jacob S, Griffiths CJ, Greenhalgh T, Sheikh A. A rapid synthesis of the evidence on interventions supporting self-management for people with long-term conditions: PRISMS – Practical systematic Review of Self-Management Support for long-term conditions. Southampton, UK: NIHR Journals Library, 2014.
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